Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp was born near Blainville, France in 1887. In 1904, he went to Paris where he joined his artist brothers, Jacques Villon and Raymond Duchamp-Villon at the Académie Julian.
Duchamp exhibited in 1909 for the first time at the Salon des Indépendants and the Salon d’Automne in Paris. His early works were in the Post- Impressionist style and after 1911 his work was directly related to Cubism. By 1913, Duchamp was employing various experimental forms. He traveled to New York in 1915 where he associated with Katherine Dreier, Man Ray, Louise and Walter Arensberg and Francis Picabia, among other avant-garde figures.
Duchamp played chess avidly for nine months in Buenos Aires, returning to France in 1919 to join the Dada group. He moved back to Paris in 1923, seemingly to solely play chess, although he did continue his artistic experiments. He collaborated with the Surrealists in the mid-1930s, participating in their exhibitions. In 1942, Duchamp settled permanently in New York and in 1955, he became a citizen of the United States.