Born in 1924 in New Malden, Surrey, Caro studied engineering at Christ’s College in Cambridge in 1942. During vacations, he attended the Farnham School of Art and worked in the studio of sculptor, Charles Wheeler. He served for two years in the Fleet Air Arm of the Royal Navy in 1944 and afterwards attended Regent Street Polytechnic where he studied sculpture with Geoffrey Deeley. From 1947 into the early 1950s Caro received strict academic training at the Royal Academy Schools in London taught by Royal Academicians.
His first one-man show took place in 1957 in London at the Gimpel Fils Gallery and he was included in the Paris Biennale in 1959. He received the David E. Bright Foundation Price at the Venice Biennale in 1966 and an Honorary Degree from Brandeis University in Massachusetts in 1981, among many other awards.