Stanley William Hayter
Stanley William Hayter was born in London in 1901. He was descended from a family of painters, including George Hayter. From 1917 to 1921, he studied chemistry and geology at King’s College in London. Following graduation, he worked in the Persian Gulf for the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. He settled in Paris in 1926 and enrolled at the Academie Julian where he studied burin engraving with the Polish artist, Joseph Hecht.
In 1927, Hayter began taking his own pupils and five years later he named his workshop “Atelier 17”, after the address of his studio in the Rue Campagne-Premiere. The workshop had an egalitarian structure, breaking French tradition by promoting a cooperative approach to labor and technical discoveries. Hayter was introduced to Surrealism in 1929 by fellow artists Andre Masson and Yves Tanguy.
His response to the Spanish Civil War was quite strong and he organized portfolios of prints to raise funds to support the Spanish cause. During the 1930s, Hayter exhibited often with the Surrealists, before leaving the movement when Paul Eluard was expelled. Hayter collaborated, at times, with other artists including Samuel Beckett, Georges Hugnet and Paul Eluard. One of the most influential twentieth century printmakers, Hayter pioneered new processes which transformed the art of gravure, initiating simultaneous color printing and a wider range of colors.