Born in Piatra-Neamt, Romania in 1903, Brauner attended evangelical school in Braila from 1916-1918. He studied briefly at the School of Fine Arts in Bucharest, where he later helped found the Dadaist review "75 HP". His first solo exhibition took place at the Galerie Mozart in Bucharest in 1924 and during the following year he spent time in Paris where he settled in 1930. His first Parisian solo show was held at the Galerie Pierre in 1934. It was not well received and in 1935, Brauner returned to Bucharest where he stayed until 1938. He returned to Paris in 1945 and was included in the Exposition Internationale du Surrealisme at the Galerie Maeght in 1947. He traveled to Italy and Normandy in the 1950s and his work appeared at the Venice Biennale in 1954 and 1966.